Prevalence of fluid overload in an urban US hemodialysis population: A cross-sectional study
Introduction: Inadequate fluid status remains a key driver of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Quantification of fluid overload (FO) using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) has become standard in many countries. To date, no BIS device has been approved in the United States for fluid status assessment in kidney patients. Therefore, no previous quantification of fluid status in US kidney patients using BIS has been reported. Our aim was to conduct a cross-sectional BIS-based assessment of fluid status in an urban US HD population.
Methods: We determined fluid status in chronic HD patients using whole body BIS (Body Composition Monitor, BCM). The BCM reports FO in liters; negative FO denotes fluid depletion. Measurements were performed before dialysis. Post-HD FO was estimated by subtracting the intradialytic weight loss from the pre-HD FO.
Findings: We studied 170 urban HD patients (age 61 ± 14 years, 60% male). Pre- and post-HD FO (mean ± SD), were 2.2 ± 2.4 and -0.2 ± 2.7 L, respectively. Pre-HD, 43% of patients were fluid overloaded, 53% normally hydrated, and 4% fluid depleted. Post-HD, 12% were fluid overloaded, 55% normohydrated and 32% fluid depleted. Only 48% of fluid overloaded patients were hypertensive, while 38% were normotensive and 14% hypotensive. Fluid status did not differ significantly between African Americans (N = 90) and Caucasians (N = 61).
Discussion: While about half of the patients had normal fluid status pre-HD, a considerable proportion of patients was either fluid overloaded or depleted, indicating the need for tools to objectively quantify fluid status.
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