Vascular Access and Clinical Outcomes in Underserved Hemodialysis Patients in Mexico
Introduction: Central venous catheter (CVC) as vascular access in hemodialysis (HD) associates with adverse outcomes. Early CVC to fistula or graft conversion improves these outcomes. While socioeconomic disparities between the USA and Mexico exist, little is known about CVC prevalence and conversion rates in uninsured Mexican HD patients. We examined vascular access practice patterns and their effects on survival and hospitalization rates among uninsured Mexican HD patients, in comparison with HD patients who initiated treatment in the USA.
Methods: In this retrospective study of incident HD patients at Hospital Civil (HC; Guadalajara, MX) and the Renal Research Institute (RRI; USA), we categorized patients by the vascular access at the first month of HD and after the following 6 months. Factors associated with continued CVC use were identified by a logistic regression model. We developed multivariate Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the effects of access and conversion on mortality and hospitalization over an 18-month follow-up period.
Results: In 1,632 patients from RRI, the CVC prevalence at month 1 was 64% and 97% among 174 HC patients. The conversion rate was 31.7% in RRI and 10.6% in HC. CVC to non-central venous catheter (NON-CVC) conversion reduced the risk of hospitalization in both HC (aHR 0.38 [95% CI: 0.21-0.68], p = 0.001) and RRI (aHR 0.84 [95% CI: 0.73-0.93], p = 0.001). NON-CVC patients had a lower mortality risk in both populations.
Discussion/conclusion: CVC prevalence and conversion rates of CVC to NON-CVC differed between the US and Mexican patients. An association exists between vascular access type and hospitalization and mortality risk. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate if accelerated and systematic catheter use reduction would improve outcomes in these populations.
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