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Blood Purification

Vascular Access and Clinical Outcomes in Underserved Hemodialysis Patients in Mexico

Pablo Maggiani-Aguilera, Jochen G Raimann, Jonathan S Chávez-Iñiguez, Guillermo Navarro-Blackaller, Peter Kotanko, Guillermo Garcia-Garcia

Abstract

Introduction: Central venous catheter (CVC) as vascular access in hemodialysis (HD) associates with adverse outcomes. Early CVC to fistula or graft conversion improves these outcomes. While socioeconomic disparities between the USA and Mexico exist, little is known about CVC prevalence and conversion rates in uninsured Mexican HD patients. We examined vascular access practice patterns and their effects on survival and hospitalization rates among uninsured Mexican HD patients, in comparison with HD patients who initiated treatment in the USA.

Methods: In this retrospective study of incident HD patients at Hospital Civil (HC; Guadalajara, MX) and the Renal Research Institute (RRI; USA), we categorized patients by the vascular access at the first month of HD and after the following 6 months. Factors associated with continued CVC use were identified by a logistic regression model. We developed multivariate Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the effects of access and conversion on mortality and hospitalization over an 18-month follow-up period.

Results: In 1,632 patients from RRI, the CVC prevalence at month 1 was 64% and 97% among 174 HC patients. The conversion rate was 31.7% in RRI and 10.6% in HC. CVC to non-central venous catheter (NON-CVC) conversion reduced the risk of hospitalization in both HC (aHR 0.38 [95% CI: 0.21-0.68], p = 0.001) and RRI (aHR 0.84 [95% CI: 0.73-0.93], p = 0.001). NON-CVC patients had a lower mortality risk in both populations.

Discussion/conclusion: CVC prevalence and conversion rates of CVC to NON-CVC differed between the US and Mexican patients. An association exists between vascular access type and hospitalization and mortality risk. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate if accelerated and systematic catheter use reduction would improve outcomes in these populations.

About the Contributors

Jochen G. Raimann, MD, PhD, MPH

Director, Data Analytics

Jochen has worked as a full-time scientist at RRI since his start as a postdoctoral research fellow in 2007. As Senior Manager of Clinical Data Analytics, Jochen conducts epidemiological research in dialysis and oversees many analytical projects. He has first- and co-authored numerous papers and also serves as Associate Editor of the journals Trials and Scientific Reports. ochen earned his MD from the Medical University Graz, his PhD from Maastricht University, and his MPH with a focus on epidemiology and biostatistics from the City University of New York School of Public Health.

Dr. Peter Kotanko, MD

RRI Research Director

SVP, Corporate Research & Development

Peter Kotanko, MD, is Research Director at the Renal Research Institute (RRI), New York. Prior to joining RRI, from 1997 to 2007 he served as vice chair of a department of internal medicine at an academic teaching hospital in Graz, Austria. Prior to moving to Graz in 1989, he worked from 1982 to 1989 in the Department of Physiology and the University Clinic of Internal Medicine in Innsbruck, Austria. From 1995 to 1996 he trained in nephrology at the Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

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